Up to the nineteenth century, Bootle was a rural area noted for its healthy air. It developed during the Victorian era into a township. In 1835, the first major school was built there and other key buildings and institutions developed; the population increasing. Bootle officially became a borough in 1868. By the end of the nineteenth century the town had dockyards and heavy industry and many people had come from Wales, Scotland and Ireland to live in the area and that of nearby Litherland. In 1940-41 the Bootle population endured the Blitz, suffering many casualties and much damage. In the post-war period, Bootle has been gradually rebuilt, with many buildings springing up, such as houses (eg in Netherton), office blocks, and the Strand Shopping complex.